PURGATORIO:

                                                   

CATECISMO DE LA IGLESIA CATÓLICA (ASOCIACIÓN DE EDITORES DEL CATECISMO):      P. 241, III, LA PURIFICACIÓN FINAL O PURGATORIO. 1030. Los que mueren en la gracia y en la amistad de Dios, pero imperfectamente purificados, aunque están seguros de su eterna salvación, sufren después de su muerte una  purificación, a fin de obtener la santidad necesaria para entrar en la alegría del cielo.

1031 La tradición de la Iglesia, haciendo referencia a ciertos textos de la Escritura (por ejemplo, 1 Co 3, 15; 1 P 1, 7, habla de un fuego purificador: Respecto a ciertas faltas ligeras, es necesario creer que, antes del juicio, existe un fuego purificador, según lo que afirma Aquel que es la Verdad, al decir que si alguno ha pronunciado una blasfemia contra el Espíritu Santo, esto no le será perdonado ni en este siglo, ni en el futuro (Mt. 12, 31). En esta frase podemos entender que algunas faltas pueden ser perdonadas en este siglo, pero otras en el siglo futuro (San Gregorio Magno, dial. 4, 39).

  1. Esta enseñanza se apoya también en la práctica de la oración por los difuntos, de la que ya habla un libro apócrifo llamado Macabeos: “Por eso mandó (Judas Macabeo) hacer este sacrificio expiatorio en favor de los muertos, para que quedaran liberados del pecado (2 Macabeos 12, 46).

La Iglesia Católica enseña que las almas de individuos que han muerto con pecados veniales (transgresiones no mortales sino leves) que no han sido perdonados, o con pecados por los cuales no han sufrido la pena temporal no van al infierno pero tampoco al cielo, sino a este lugar llamado “purgatorio” para ser purificadas con fuego para ir eventualmente al cielo.

Para probar esta doctrina citan 2 Macabeos 12:43, texto vago en un libro “apócrifo”. Los libros “apócrifos” son libros agregados a la Biblia que supuestamente son libros sagrados pero que no pertenecen al canon de la Biblia.  No se incluyen en la Septuaginta, versión griega del Antiguo Testamento. Y no fueron aceptados como Escritura por los judíos ni por Cristo y los apóstoles.

Pero este texto no les ayuda. En los versículos anteriores (2 Macabeos 12:38-40) aprendemos que “encontraron debajo de la ropa de los que habían sido muertos algunas ofrendas de las consagradas a los ídolos que había en Yamnia, cosas prohibidas por la ley de los judíos, con lo cual conocieron todos evidentemente que esto había sido la causa de su muerte”.

Este texto no les ayuda para justificar la doctrina del purgatorio porque habla de gente culpable de la idolatría y este pecado según el catolicismo es pecado mortal y no venial (pecado que no resulta en separación eterna de Dios).

Uno de los textos del Nuevo Testamento que se emplea (mal) para probar la existencia del purgatorio es Mateo 12:32, “A cualquiera que dijere alguna palabra contra el Hijo del Hombre, le será perdonado; pero al que hable contra el Espíritu Santo, no será perdonado, ni en este siglo ni en el venidero”. El argumento católico es que en el cielo no hay pecado y que en el infierno no habrá perdón; por eso, tiene que ser purgatorio.

Una de las reglas más importantes para entender y explicar textos bíblicos es que se tome en cuenta lo que dicen los textos paralelos. Marcos 3:29 es paralelo  con Mateo 12:32. Mateo y Marcos hablan de la misma ocasión y las palabras de Marcos explican perfectamente las palabras de Mateo, diciendo, “pero cualquiera que blasfeme contra el Espíritu Santo no tiene jamás perdón, sino que es reo de juicio eterno”. La frase “no tiene jamás perdón” equivale a “no será perdonado, ni en este siglo ni en el venidero”. Indudablemente el texto en Marcos fija el significado verdadero de las palabras de Mateo.

Además, otro texto paralelo es Lucas 12:10 dice, “no le será perdonado”. Estos dos textos (Marcos 3:29; Lucas 12:10) explican perfectamente lo que Mateo dice (12:32): Dicen que nunca tiene perdón. Es indispensable que dejemos que la Biblia se explique sola, que la Biblia explique la Biblia.

También citan 1 Corintios 3:15 para sostener la doctrina del purgatorio donde supuestamente los que mueren con pecados no mortales van para ser purificados con fuego (y con oraciones y el pago de misas). 1 Corintios 3:13-dice, “Si la obra de cada uno se hará manifiesta; porque el día la declarará, pues por el fuego será revelada; y la obra de cada uno cual sea, el fuego la probará. Si permaneciere la obra de alguno que sobreedificó, recibirá recompensa. Si la obra de alguno se quemare, el sufrirá pérdida, si bien él mismo será salvo, aunque así como por fuego”-

Pero este texto no les ayuda porque dice que “la obra de cada uno se hará manifiesta … pues por el fuego será revelada” y la Iglesia Católica no enseña que “cada uno” va al purgatorio. La “obra” en este texto son los que hayan convertido. La “obra” de cada quien  es probada como si fuera por fuego y aunque se pierda su obra (es decir, los conversos no perseveran), comoquiera si el obrero era cumplido en su trabajo él será salvo.

Además la Iglesia Católica enseña que almas son purificadas en el purgatorio pero 1 Corintios 3:15 no habla de almas sino de obras.

Tampoco habla este texto de purificar sino de probar. La obra de cada quien (los que hayan convertido) es probada como si fuera por fuego y aunque se pierda su obra (los conversos no perseveran), comoquiera si el obrero era cumplido en su trabajo él será salvo.

Nadie es purificado por fuego. Esta doctrina niega la eficacia de la sangre de Cristo. Somos purificados por la sangre de Cristo y nuestra obediencia. No hay texto que enseñe que el fuego sirva para purificar. Esta doctrina (purgatorio) contradice 1 Juan 1:7 y los otros textos que dicen que somos redimidos por Cristo y su sangre.

Otro texto muy importante en este estudio es Lucas 16:19-31. Cristo habla de cierto hombre llamado Lázaro. (Por eso, este texto no es parábola porque las parábolas nunca de hablan de personas en particular).

El rico murió y en el Hades alzó los ojos estando en tormentos, diciendo “ten misericordia de mí porque estoy atormentado en esta llama”. No dice nada de purgatorio y no se le ofreció la esperanza de escapar después de ser purificado por fuego por algún tiempo (con tal que su familia orara por él y pagara por cierto número de misas).
Finalmente, consideremos 1 Pedro 3:18-20. Se afirma erróneamente que Cristo predicó a las almas en el purgatorio. Dicen que los encarcelados no están en el cielo y que los que van al infierno no se llaman encarcelados; por eso, tiene que ser el purgatorio.

Pero otra vez la Iglesia Católica se contradice a sí misma. ¿Quiénes son estos encarcelados? Eran los “desobedientes”, palabra que se traduce “incrédulos” en la Biblia Católica (Editorial Herder, Barcelona) y este es pecado mortal. Por eso, otra vez el mismo texto que tuercen les contradice.

Los encarcelados de este texto no están en el purgatorio sino en lo que el apóstol Pedro llama el “tártaro”, o “prisiones de oscuridad” (2 Pedro 2:4) reservados para el juicio final. No hay “segunda oportunidad” para los tales. (El “Tártaro” es el lugar de tormento en el Hades, la morada provisional de los espíritus sin cuerpo. Los muertos fieles van al Paraíso, lugar de reposo en el Hades).

Recuérdese que 1 Pedro 1:10-12 enseña que el Espíritu de Cristo estaba en los profetas y Noé era uno de aquellos profetas. Por eso, este texto (1 Pedro 3:18-20) se refiere a la predicación de Cristo por boca de Noé del cual el texto habla claramente. Los incrédulos (los que desobedecieron esa predicación) son los que en la actualidad están encarcelados en el Tártaro (Hades) esperando el juicio final.

Conclusión:

Después de la muerte no habrá ni penitencia, ni oraciones ni otros medios de salvación. Hebreos 9:27; Proverbios 11:7; 2 Corintios 5:10.

          El “purgatorio” es producto de la imaginación del clero romano. Es pura ficción. Como dice el apóstol Pablo (2 Timoteo 4:4), “Y APARTARÁN DE LA VERDAD EL OÍDO Y SE VOLVERÁN A LAS FÁBULAS”.

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